GBD 2017 Mortality Collaborators. Global regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality and life expectancy, 1950–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 392, 1684–1735 (2018).
GBD 2017 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators. Global regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 392, 1789–1858 (2018).
Fries, J. F. Aging, natural death, and the compression of morbidity. New Engl. J. Med. 303, 130–135 (1980).
From MDGS to SDGS: General Introduction (WHO, 2015).
Pang, Y. J., Yu, C. Q., Guo, Y., Lyu, J. & Li, L. M. Associations of lifestyles with major chronic diseases in Chinese adults: evidence from the China Kadoorie Biobank. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 42, 369–75. (2021).
Zhang, Y.-B. et al. Combined lifestyle factors, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 75, 92 (2021).
Zhang, Y. B. et al. Combined lifestyle factors, incident cancer, and cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Br. J. Cancer 122, 1085–1093 (2020).
Li, Y. et al. Healthy lifestyle and life expectancy free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study. Br. Med. J. 368, l6669 (2020).
Cuthbertson, C. C. et al. Associations of leisure-time physical activity and television viewing with life expectancy free of nonfatal cardiovascular disease: the ARIC study. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 8, e012657 (2019).
Khan, S. S. et al. Association of body mass index with lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and compression of morbidity. J. Am. Med. Assoc. Cardiol. 3, 280–287 (2018).
O’Doherty, M. G. et al. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease: results from the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES). Eur. J. Epidemiol. 31, 455–468 (2016).
Dhana, K. et al. Obesity and life expectancy with and without diabetes in adults aged 55 years and older in the Netherlands: a prospective cohort study. PLoS Med. 13, e1002086 (2016).
Nyberg, S. T. et al. Association of healthy lifestyle with years lived without major chronic diseases. J. Am. Med. Assoc. Internal Med. 180, 760–768 (2020).
Stenholm, S. et al. Smoking, physical inactivity and obesity as predictors of healthy and disease-free life expectancy between ages 50 and 75: a multicohort study. Int. J. Epidemiol. 45, 1260–1270 (2016).
Zhou, M. et al. Mortality, morbidity, and risk factors in China and its provinces, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet 394, 1145–1158 (2019).
Qin, F. et al. Exercise and air pollutants exposure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Life Sci. 218, 153–164 (2019).
Lu, Y. et al. Comparison of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of cardiovascular risk factors in China and the United States. J. Am. Heart Assoc. 7, e007462 (2018).
Aggarwal, N. R. et al. Sex differences in ischemic heart disease. Circ. Cardiovasc. Qual. Outcomes 11, e004437 (2018).
Mamun, A. A. et al. Smoking decreases the duration of life lived with and without cardiovascular disease: a life course analysis of the Framingham Heart Study. Eur. Heart J. 25, 409–415 (2004).
Nusselder, W. J., Franco, O. H., Peeters, A. & Mackenbach, J. P. Living healthier for longer: comparative effects of three heart-healthy behaviors on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease. BMC Public Health 9, 487 (2009).
Snetselaar, L. G., de Jesus, J. M., DeSilva, D. M. & Stoody, E. E. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2020–2025: understanding the scientific process, guidelines, and key recommendations. Nutri. Today 56, 287 (2021).
Gong, W. et al. Nutrient supplement use among the Chinese population: a cross-sectional study of the 2010–2012 China nutrition and health surveillance. Nutrients 10, 1733 (2018).
Craig, W. J. Health effects of vegan diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89, 1627–1633 (2009).
Dale, C. E. et al. Causal associations of adiposity and body fat distribution with coronary heart disease, stroke subtypes, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a Mendelian randomization analysis. Circulation 135, 2373–2388 (2017).
Zhang, X. et al. Genetically predicted physical activity levels are associated with lower colorectal cancer risk: a Mendelian randomisation study. Br. J. Cancer 124, 1330–1338 (2021).
Larsson, S. C. et al. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and cancer: a Mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank and international genetic consortia participants. PLoS Med. 17, e1003178 (2020).
Chen, Z. et al. China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people: survey methods, baseline characteristics and long-term follow-up. Int. J. Epidemiol. 40, 1652–1666 (2011).
Chinese Nutrition Society. The Chinese Dietary Guidelines (People’s Medical Publishing House, 2016).
Zhu, N. et al. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese adults: a 10-year prospective study of 0.5 million people. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 16, 98 (2019).
Xi, B. et al. Relationship of alcohol consumption to all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortality in U.S. adults. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 70, 913–922 (2017).
Klurfeld, D. M. What is the role of meat in a healthy diet? Anim. Front. 8, 5–10 (2018).
Lee, D. H. et al. Predicted lean body mass, fat mass, and all cause and cause specific mortality in men: prospective US cohort study. Br. Med. J. 362, k2575 (2018).
Han, Y. et al. Lifestyle, cardiometabolic disease, and multimorbidity in a prospective Chinese study. Eur. Heart J. 42, 3374–3384 (2021).
Kurmi, O. P. et al. Validity of COPD diagnoses reported through nationwide health insurance systems in the People’s Republic of China. Int. J. Chron. Obstruct .Pulmon. Dis. 11, 419–430 (2016).
Peeters, A., Mamun, A. A., Willekens, F. & Bonneux, L. A cardiovascular life history. A life course analysis of the original Framingham Heart Study cohort. Eur. Heart J. 23, 458–466 (2002).
Franco, O. H., Peeters, A., Bonneux, L. & de Laet, C. Blood pressure in adulthood and life expectancy with cardiovascular disease in men and women: life course analysis. Hypertension 46, 280–286 (2005).
Tassistro, E., Bernasconi, D. P., Rebora, P., Valsecchi, M. G. & Antolini, L. Modeling the hazard of transition into the absorbing state in the illness–death model. Biom. J. 62, 836–851 (2020).
Tibshirani, R. J. & Efron, B. An introduction to the bootstrap. Monogr Stat. Appl. Prob. 57, 1–436 (1993).